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  1. Data resource: Lichen habitat index - Boreal Woodland Index (BWI)

    In native pinewoods the index works over larger areas than the temperate woodland indices and should be applied to interconnected areas of woodland of several 100ha, whereas for birch woods smaller areas of interconnected stands of about 100ha are applicable. Major native pinewood complexes scoring 20 or more should be considered for notification. For old growth birch woods outside of the main pinewood complexes, sites scoring 15 or more should be considered for notification.

  2. Data resource: Lichen habitat index - Heathland, Moorland & Coastal Heath Index (HMCHI)

    The Cetraria, Cladonia and Pycnothelia (CCP) index developed for southern England heathland has been augmented to cover all non-montane heaths, including non-montane moorland, coastal heathland, acid dunes and comparable habitats. For hard rock coasts and associated grassland communities, use Maritime Rock and Coastal Slope Index. The index should be applied to a heathland or moorland area of about 100ha. For example, a site supporting 23 Cladonia taxa, two Cetraria taxa, Pycnothelia papillaria and Leptogium palmatum, would score 27.

  3. Data resource: Lichen habitat index - Limestone Index

    The limestone lichen index applies to both rock and associated bare ground habitats in hard limestone landscapes (Edwards & Sanderson, in prep). The list comprises 104 species balanced to cover southern and northern non-montane (below 600m) limestone in Britain; TNTN scoring (3.4.7) should be used for calcareous assemblages above 600m. The index is designed to cover coherent outcrops of limestone in a distinct landscape relationship (spatial, geological or climatic) covering areas of between 100 to 1,000ha. The number of recorded species/species pairs in Table 5 is used to assess sites. A site with 30 or more should be considered for notification.

  4. Data resource: Lichen habitat index - Lowland Rainforest Index (LRI)

    This replaces the New Index of Ecological Continuity (NIEC) The list is designed to be applied across a wide swathe of southern Oceanic Britain.

  5. Data resource: Lichen habitat index - Maritime Rock and Coastal Slope Index - MRCSI

    Building on the work of Wolseley & James (1991) and Fletcher (2001a), a maritime rock and coastal slope lichen index has been developed (Edwards & Wolseley, in prep) which covers coastal hard rocks from intertidal rocks to salt-spray limits (potentially over 1km on very exposed coasts) and associated grassland habitats. For coastal heathland, use the Heathland, Moorland & Coastal Heath Index. Regionally restricted communities of particular interest are the Sclerophytetum circumscriptae of dry underhangs in SW England and SW Wales, and the Lobarion community (normally found in woodland) occurring on sheltered basic or base-enriched rocks in western Scotland and very rarely in England and Wales. Good examples of these communities in particular should be represented in the SSSI series.

  6. Data resource: Lichen habitat index - Metalliferous Habitats Index (MHI)

    The lichen flora of heavy metal mines has been reviewed and an index developed (Simkin, in press). The index is applicable to British sites contaminated by heavy metals (particularly lead, zinc, cadmium and copper) as a result of mining activity and may include disused mines, smeltmills, hushes, opencuts, and also the alluvial gravels downstream of these. Such habitats can support a very high lichen diversity: a collective total of 626 taxa (excluding species that primarily grow on trees) has been recorded, including eight Threatened and 18 Near Threatened species. Saxicolous and terricolous species are the main interest, principally in areas sparse of vegetation. The index comprises 49 taxa that are preferentially found in metal-rich habitats, of which 27 are saxicolous and 22 terricolous (Table 6) and applies to individual mine sites or mine complexes that are ecologically coherent. Sites are assessed on the total number of recorded species in Table 6 (saxicolous and terricolous taxa combined). A site supporting 10 or more should be considered for notification. There is considerable variation between orefields but a single selection threshold applies. Where no sites within an orefield qualify, the richest site within the AoS should be considered.

  7. Data resource: Lichen habitat index - Southern Oceanic Woodland Index (SOWI)

    For the core areas of interest indicated (associated with a strongly southern oceanic climate with clean air, in south west England and north Wales), all sites with scores of 30 or more should be considered for notification. To the north and east of these areas, in south-east England, the rest of Wales and south-west Scotland (where the more strongly southern oceanic species are rare), all sites with scores of 20 or more should be selected.

  8. Data resource: Lichen habitat index - Sub-oceanic woodland index (SWI)

    This replaces the East of Scotland Index of Ecological Continuity (ESIEC) (sub-oceanic temperate woodland). The list is designed to be applied to temperate woodland in the euoceanic and hemioceanic zones in the east of Scotland and areas with a similar climate in the north east of England. The assemblage occurs in east Wales and the Marches but sites in these areas can also be assessed using SOWI.

  9. Data resource: Lichen habitat index - Upland Rainforest Index (URI)

    In the core areas of this habitat (western Scottish Highlands and North Wales) all sites with scores of 15 or more should be selected. Outside of the these areas, in south west England, south Wales and north west England diversity is generally lower and all sites scoring 10 or more should be considered for notification.

  10. Data resource: Lichenicolous fungi recorded from Solorina spp.

    A list of lichenicolous fungi recorded from lichens in the genus Solorina (from LICHENICOLOUS.NET)